Category Archives: Technology

Self Service Still Requires Service

In the ad tech space, you basically are selling against two service levels:

  • Self Service
  • Managed Service

Over the past five or so years, these have become en-vogue since most companies in ad tech sell platforms of some kind.

As a buyer (or user of the platform), you basically have a decision to make.  Do you want to operate the platform yourself or do you want to rely on the company selling you the platform to handle operations.  The former is self service and the latter is managed service, fairly self explanatory.

Over the past 4-5 years in the DSP space, the majority of the marketplace was managed service.  This is for a host of reasons including lack of talent to operate platforms, simplicity around billing, and expected performance.

I am witnessing the tide shifting.  Buyers of platforms are shifting to self service operations and building on top of and around these platforms.

A bit of advice to companies selling “self service.”    You probably want to sell “self service” because it makes your investors happy as it’s higher margin (less staff to service) and you want a tech platform multiple, not a service multiple.   Companies who have biased towards this have severely lacked in support, even to the self service users.

You need to support your users of your platforms, whether or not they are self service.  Over service them.  Because if you do not, someone else will.  Your technology will be a commodity in future years.  Your service will stand it apart.

* Reading:  If you want to read a good book about service, read Setting the Table by Danny Meyer, the owner of some fabulous restaurants including Gammercy Tavern, Tabla, and plenty of others.  Service transcends industries, so don’t fear that the book is not about ad tech.

Golden Age of Ad and Marketing Technology

On AdExchanger yesterday, Terrence Kawaja talked about how Ad Tech was going through a potential Golden Age.  There have been some recent acquisitions/mergers that have helped validate some of this thinking.  But why?  And why now?

List of recent ad tech acquisitions or mergers, not complete:  33across/Tynt, SAS/aiMatch, DG/Peer39, OpenX/LiftDNA, Pubmatic/MobiPrimo, Rubicon Project/Mobsmith and Syncapse/Clickable, Google/Admeld, Google/Meebo, Yahoo/Interclick, ValueClick/Greystripe, Adobe/Efficient Frontier, Oracle/Virtrue, Salesforce/Buddy Media, IBM/Core Metrics

I was talking to a potential client yesterday and we were discussing advertising technology.  We talked about how media is transitioning into the paid, owned, and earned landscape and more importantly, the rent vs. own (audience) scenario.  In a world that’s becoming increasingly digital and platforms can help harness the audiences who engage with you (and your brand), then having marketing technology platforms will help you not only harness this audience, but it’ll allow you to segment, target, engage, and draw insights amongst many other things.

Gone are the days where we continually rent audiences from media companies and pay them significant dollars time and time again.  We should not have to do that continuously if we have platforms that allow us to engage with audiences, have them opt-in to participate with us (as a brand) and interact with them over time.  I’m not saying there is not a role for paid media as there certainly is a role for renting audiences to help us refresh out funnels.

Why this is so important for marketing and advertising technology is because most brands (and their respective agencies) are new to this.  An ad-server is not enough anymore.  Over the past few years with increased velocity, we are re-writing what it means to be a marketer from a technology perspective and using this technology to make ourselves more effective and efficient, which in turn, benefits the consumer.

The Golden Age might be here because many forward thinking strategic companies see the future and need to button and scale up their infrastructure.  The world is their oyster right now and we’ll continue to see additional acquisitions and mergers.

One of my favorite days of the year: TMK Digital Media Venture Capital Conference

The Media Kitchen logoOn Wednesday, April 11, The Media Kitchen is hosting our 5th annual Digital Media Venture Capital Conference.  Here is the writeup from 2008, our first one we ever held.  It’s one of my favorite days of the year because it’s packed with inspiration from some of the greatest minds in venture capital, technology, and entrepreneurship.  For five hours on Wednesday, executives from Union Square Ventures, First Round Capital, LUMA Partners, OMGPOP, Adconion Media Group, PlaceIQ, Flurry, and Advertising Age are going to be taking our stage and talking about marketing, disruption, and mobile.  It’s going to be exciting.

I have one extra spot I’m holding for a reader of my blog.  If you’d be interested in attending, please contact me and let me know why you’d like to attend.  It’s from 8:30am-1pm in Tribeca (NYC) and you’d be expected to stay the whole time to maximize the opportunity.

Here are some of the topics of the talks:

The 2012 Industry Landscape—Challenges and Opportunities

Mention “the slide” to any industry vet and she’ll immediately know that you’re talking about Terry Kawaja’s famous “LUMAscapes”—the maps of how the different pieces of the digital marketing business fit together. Whether it’s how trading desks like Cadreon relate to DSPs like Turn in the display ecosystem, how Tremor feeds into Akamai in video and other companies across social, e-commerce, mobile, search and more, the LUMAscapes are, in the words of Google’s Neal Mohan, “the clear industry standard when it comes to understanding the digital media economy.” Today, we’re pleased to welcome LUMA Partners CEO Terence Kawaja as he outlines the most significant challenges and opportunities to companies trying to succeed in these rapidly evolving and inter-related ecosystems. Don’t miss this exciting keynote address!  Terence Kawaja, CEO & Founder, LUMA Partners LLC

The Past, Present and Future of Online Advertising

Can’t see the forest from the trees? Here’s a chainsaw. This presentation cuts through the complexity of the advertising industry by looking at its evolution over time. From the creation of the first billboard to the Exchanges, DSP’s, and Trading Desks of today, Ben Fox takes a comprehensive look at where the industry started and where it will go next. He exposes the forces that will drive change and takes a deep look at the technology systems that will be the foundation of the new online advertising ecosystem. Finally, he provides agencies, advertisers, ad networks, and publishers a roadmap to navigate the future space.  Ben Fox,  Adconion Media Group

Trends and Opportunities in Venture Capital and Mobile

First Round Capital has been one of the most active investors in NYC and across the country over the last several years, and one of the earliest to focus on seed stage investing.   Managing Partner Chris Fralic will discuss the forces driving the startup landscape, and where First Round is innovating and adding value.    He’ll also give an overview of some of the most important trends in Mobile, with real-world examples and insight, and what it means for brands and marketers.  Chris Fralic, First Round Capital

Zero to $200 Million in 30 days

OMGPOP CEO Dan Porter interviewed by Chris Fralic.   It took AOL 9 years to hit 1 million users.  It took Facebook 9 months.   Draw Something by OMGPOP took 9 days.   Dan Porter is the CEO of NYC’s OMGPOP who has literally taken the mobile gaming world by storm, and in under a month launched one of the most successful games ever and were acquired by Zynga for over $200 million dollars.    This is no overnight success story, though – Dan and the team worked for years developing other games and learning what worked and didn’t.  Find out how they did it, and what brands and marketers can learn, from virality, to game theory, and working your way on to and up the app store leaderboards. Dan Porter, CEO OMGPOP & Chris Fralic, First Round Capital

Inside the Trillion Dollar Media Revolution

Everyday, mobile applications appear to be disrupting multi-billion dollar industries raging from gaming and entertainment to transportation and logistics. In this session, Flurry will discuss the impact mobile applications are having on traditional media, the web and television and will also share insights on how mobile advertising is changing the way consumers are engaging with advertisers.  Simon Kalaf, CEO Flurry

The Future is Location Aware

“Location may be the biggest indicator of intent since search…” so the saying goes and we are out to prove it. In mobile advertising PlaceIQ is pushing the boundaries of privacy friendly audience targeting using the context of location as the key. We’ll discuss how, and show some specific customer examples. Plus discuss how the future is truly ‘location aware’ and what this means for the digital media industry.  Duncan McCall, CEO PlaceIQ

Why Everything You Know About Advertising Is Wrong

Well, maybe not *everything*. But if you think the future is about interruptive advertising, then yes, Union Square Ventures partner Albert Wenger thinks you’re mostly wrong, and maybe about to become obsolete. Technology is changing how humans interact with each other and if brands want to be part of that conversation they need to figure out how to add value in a way that’s “native to the user flow.” Advertising Age digital editor Michael Learmonth talks to Wenger about what that looks like and how the next generation of brands can thrive in the social web.  Michael Learmonth, Sr. Editor, Advertising Age with Albert Wenger, Partner, Union Square Ventures

2012 Advertising & Media Technology Predictions

Over the years, instead of writing my own forecasts and predictions, I’ve aggregated them on this blog as a source for everyone to turn to for marketing, technology and media.  Here are the lists for 2008, 2009, and 2010.  This year, instead of aggregating them, I wrote 5 predictions that I think will come true for Advertising and Marketing Technology in 2012.

The predictions are below, but you can read more about them here on Advertising Age.

1.  The vGRP metric gets adopted once released and AdXpose/Comscore finally makes sense to most people

2.  Trading Desks are no longer the bright shiny object for Madison Avenue as they begin to mature and become growth businesses for holding companies.  Holding companies need to make a strategic decision whether or not they are going to continue to support them and if so, they must acknowledge and realize they are building technology organizations.  If not, we’ll start to see some trading desks spinning down (or out) of holding companies in 2012.

3.  Agencies who are not agencies will challenge the agencies.  I like the title on this one:  tomorrow’s madison avenue will look different than todays.  Read more about it in-depth over at Ad Age.

4.  Attribution drives dollars to currently undervalued assets.  By using engagement mapping, TrueCPA, or other fun names for understanding conversion attribution, media buyers will actually be able to purchase sites that aren’t part of the lower purchase funnel.

5.  And of course, what marketing technology trend and prediction list would not include Consolidation and Investment as a headline?  Mine certainly will.

I’m super excited about the above 5.  There are quite a few more but these are my starting five going into 2012.

Marketing Technology behind $35 billion in holiday 2011 ecommerce sales

Ever wonder who is the marketing technology behind the $35 billion dollars in e-commerce sales this holiday season? If you are an agency, wall street analyst, marketer, optimizer or any other player in the digital media ecosystem, you probably want to read below.

I always tell my team at The Media Kitchen that you can learn a lot from what other companies are doing; the good, the bad, and the ugly… so study them.  On the web, it’s relatively easy to study companies and their respective infrastructure as the source code of competitors is only 1 click away.

I teamed up with my friends over at Evidon who own the Ghostery product and had them send me a data dump of 3rd party tags that were placed on 20 e-commerce sites (list below).  Note, the data I have is fairly reliable but not perfect, so I may have missed a partner here or there.  However, I do have over 150+ partners who had tags down on these 20 e-commerce destinations, so I feel I have a directionally accurate view of who was part of the marketing technology ecosystem for Holiday 2011.

Sites I tracked were Best Buy, CouponCabin, Sports Authority, LL Bean, Gap, Dicks Sporting Goods, Bed Bath & Beyond, SVPPLY, DSW.com, Modells, Zappos, Old Navy, Disney, Target, Walmart, Gilt, Sears, Amazon, NewEgg, and Piperlime.

I counted a total of 413 partner tags/pixels placed across these 20 sites (note, I only went to 1-2 pages per site and assumed tags would be similar across most pages).

Executive Summary (full report can be downloaded here)

  • Best Buy, CouponCabin, and Sports Authority properties contained 43% of all tags placed.  The top 10 of the 20 sites accounted for 85% of all tags placed.  I am actually surprised that Amazon didn’t fall into the top 3, but again, Ghostery told me they only had 3 tags down on their pages (Turn, DoubleClick, Google Analytics).
  • The top 3 tags placed across all 20 sites were Google Analytics, Omniture, and DoubleClick.  No real surprise here.
  • The biggest surprise IMHO is that Google+1 outranks Facebook and Twitter as social plug-ins that are embedded across these ecommerce publishers.
  • The DSPs are in-line with the recent Forrestor report so I didn’t find anything crazy in those numbers.
  • Google Analytics has 70% coverage across these 20 e-commerce sites.  Imagine the data that Google could/is collecting.  Just saying.

In order to digest this 1000+ cell data dump, I created a schematic whereas I broke down the product (such as Tag Management) and took the top companies and their % composition the 20 e-commerce destinations.  The link to the excel sheet is at the bottom of this post.

Web Analytics software:  Google Analytics (70%), Omniture (60%), Foresee (40%), Webtrends (15%), Yahoo Analytics (15%), Coremetrics (10%)

3rd Party Ad Serving:  DoubleClick (55%), Microsoft Atlas (25%), ValueClick MediaPlex (35%), MediaMind (5%)

Tag Management:  BrightTag (20%), TagMan (5%)

DSP:  AppNexus AdNexus (30%), Turn (25%), MediaMath (20%), Invite Media (20%),  AdNetik (10%), X+1 (10%), Lucid (5%), DataXu (5%), Rocket Fuel (5%)

Exchange:  Right Media (35%), AdBrite (15%), OpenX (10%)

SSP:  PubMatic (50%), Rubicon (25%), Admeld (10%)

Social Plug-Ins:  Google +1 (45%), Facebook (40%), Twitter (15%), AddThis (15%)

Site Optimization:  Omniture (60%), Monetate (20%), RichRelevance (20%), Visual Website Optimizer (15%)

I believe the Omniture & DoubleClick tag data above is a bit misleading because those are grandiose tags that can do many different things and without the right context, they could be categorized incorrectly.  I tried my best.

Conclusion

Google dominates pretty much up and down the marketing technology stack. I still think they should buy Adobe to become the monopolistic dominant player (to get Omniture), but I don’t believe the government will ever allow that.

I was actually surprised that Omniture didn’t have even higher composition of the 20 ecommerce players.

I couldn’t tease out DoubleClick AdX from their other tags so that’s why they weren’t included in the Exchange part.

And of course, since I work, play, and invest in the marketing technology ecosystem, I’m conflicted up the wazoo with many of the companies mentioned in this post as well, as, the data in the chart linked below.  I have done my best to tease out bias.  Please proceed with caution but honestly, I don’t think you need to.  Contact me if you are interested in discussing.

Thought you might find all of this data interesting.  I have included my chart here in case you want to download it and play with it.  The full report I put together is located herePlease remember to give proper attribution if you use it.

I’m curious to look at this data in 2012 and compare it to 2011 (I don’t have historicals).  I’m sure we’ll see some interesting changes.

Happy holidays.

Darren Herman is the Chief Digital Media Officer of The Media Kitchen (part of kbs+) and is President of kbs+ Ventures which is an early stage marketing technology institutional investment arm of the agency.  His tweets can be found at @dherman76 and blogging here at http://www.darrenherman.com

Helping Demand Find Supply

about advertising and operating systems. There are not enough advertising dollars in
the ecosystem to be the only revenue model for digital media companies so we must
look elsewhere.
Mobile impacts our future in ways many do not realize yet. When you are in the middle
of the early part of the Gartner Hype Curve, you do not know how large an opportunity
can become and often times, it is underestimated. Being hyperbolic on purpose, I feel
we are underestimating the importance of location, which is brought to use by mobile
data.
The key essence of the line, “Help demand find supply, not supply find demand” is all
about enabling a process, interface or system to help consumers consume, at its purest
form. Let consumers pull information, not just have it pushed down to them.
Mobile affords the opportunity for an interesting ratio (balanced maybe) of push vs.
pull marketing. The majority of marketing is push – supply finding demand. We buy
banners, magazine pages, television spots, billboards and the like so marketers
can reach customers. With location data as now part of the marketing optimization
mix, consumes can now request and pull information. Early current forms of this are
platforms like Groupon or FourSquare.
However, what happens when customers can reach us? What happens when push
budgets are down 80% and that money is invested to marketing around pulling? Could
this happen? It is happening, but Madison Avenue needs to retool and rejigger for this.
There is a famous quote by Henry Ford which says, “If I asked consumers what they
would of wanted, they would have said a faster horse.” This of course, refers to the
automotive empire he ignited. Steve Jobs has similar quotes. And of course, Mark
Zuckerberg does too. In a world where consumes can pull messages or find supply, do
we (as consumer) know what we want or need?
(open question, start thinking….. now)

The above quote stuck out from a recent conference I went to when we were talking about advertising and operating systems.  There are not enough advertising dollars in the ecosystem to be the only revenue model for digital media companies so we must look elsewhere.

Mobile impacts our future in ways many do not realize yet.  When you are in the middle of the early part of the Gartner Hype Curve, you do not know how large an opportunity can become and often times, it is underestimated.  Being hyperbolic on purpose, I feel we are underestimating the importance of location, which is brought to use by mobile data.

The key essence of the line, “Help demand find supply, not supply find demand” is all about enabling a process, interface or system to help consumers consume, at its purest form.  Let consumers pull information, not just have it pushed down to them.

Mobile affords the opportunity for an interesting ratio (balanced maybe) of push vs. pull marketing.  The majority of marketing is push – supply finding demand.  We buy banners, magazine pages, television spots, billboards and the like so marketers can reach customers.  With location data as now part of the marketing optimization mix, consumes can now request and pull information.  Early current forms of this are platforms like Groupon or FourSquare.

However, what happens when customers can reach us?  What happens when push budgets are down 80% and that money is invested to marketing around pulling?  Could this happen?  It is happening, but Madison Avenue needs to retool and rejigger for this.

There is a famous quote by Henry Ford which says, “If I asked consumers what they would of wanted, they would have said a faster horse.”   This of course, refers to the automotive empire he ignited.  Steve Jobs has similar quotes.  And of course, Mark Zuckerberg does too.  In a world where consumes can pull messages or find supply, do we (as consumer) know what we want or need?

(open question, start thinking….. now)

The Integration Company

I was on the phone with a founder of a major data play within the digital ecosystem this afternoon.  We were discussing the next 12-24 mos of acquisitions and who the big players will be.  This post is not about who will be acquired or do the acquiring, or the bankers who will make some good dollars off the deals, but rather the single most important part:  Integration.

There is no doubt that there will be mergers and acquisitions.  The main reason why deals fail is because the integration between the two companies doesn’t happen.  There are a slew of reasons for this, but most of the time, culture and mismanaged expectations are what drives companies not to integrate well.

If I were going out on my own and wanted to start a services organization, I’d build up a company specifically geared toward making integrations work and take a % of the deal for compensation.  I’d have a team of ad tech and business professionals who have been through it before and make sure that all the boxes are checked around a solid integration.

There will be no shortage of M&A in the ad tech space in the next 12-24 mos so this should be a nice opportunity

Android to Apple

As many of you know, I switched from my iPhone 4 because I wanted to immerse myself in the Android world, so I bought a Samsung Charge, switched from AT&T to Verizon, and went cold turkey on iOS.

As of around 11pm last night, I’m back on the iOS platform as I got up and running on my new iPhone 4S.

Reasons why I switched back:

  • I found that I didn’t want to have to “work” to make my phone optimal.  I ended up having to manually do many things on the Charge to get things the way I wanted them.
  • The battery life was terrible.  I went thru between 2-3 batteries on any given weekday (work) day.
  • The phone was not refined; I couldn’t change things like the font on my email and the on/off switch was where my thumb touched when I held the phone which caused me to power on/off at sub optimal times

Things I learned about Android:

  • It wasn’t as hard to get up and running as I expected.
  • It actually looks pretty sweet (except for the startup screen, which is scary)
  • The App Store is pretty robust.  I was pleasantly surprised that the only App I couldn’t really find was Instagram
  • Loved the integration with Google Apps

I’m excited to be back.  Any iOS apps I should be downloading? I’m looking for a solid RSS app.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Building a Data Empire On Your Back

This post was inspired by an email conversation between Taylor Davidson, Adam Liebsohn, and myself early this morning.  Taylor works at kbs+p Ventures and Adam is the founder/ceo of a startup called VoyURL.

“The best way for a startup to get a dataset like that is to create some sort of self-expression platform, a way to express what you’re into …,” says Lavingia, who also designed the Turntable.fm iPhone app. “You can’t directly ask users, ‘Hey we’d love all of your data! List the songs you like and the albums you’ve bought and the places you’ve visited and the food you’ve eaten.’ But you need these answers to ultimately make money.”

The above quote comes from a post on TechCrunch titled Pinterest Joins Twitter and Facebook As The Newest Self-Expression Engine.  It’s hot on the heels of a few other posts (BloombergBetabeatUncrunchedTechCrunch) that talk about how Facebook and the like are building massive data assets on the backs of consumers and reselling them to advertisers.  Consumers for the most part, are not fiscally compensated, but some of the technology services can argue that they are getting value in exchange for their data.

Bloomberg’s latest headline, “Getting Rich From Others Has Never Been Easier,” pretty much sums it all up.

I think there’s an expression, “there’s no free lunch in life.”  When was the last time you signed up for a service and wondered how it was making money?

For the next 24 hours, look at all the sites you visit.  Are they collecting your data and reselling it?  Are you making any money off of your data?

I think we are going to see some sort of reform in this area.  Imagine going to a website and seeing a “ratings” of some kind which shows what they are doing with your data, similar to how the movie world uses different types of ratings (G, PG, PG-13, R, MA).  A little icon or graphic which shows if your data is being sold, transferred, stored, etc.  I think I’d like this – and folks like Apple who take leadership positions with App Stores would have to roll this out next to each app I download.  I’d like to know what’s happening with my data.

Just some food for thought on this Tuesday morning.

YCombinator Ad Innovation Conference Keynote Breakdown

Today’s opening keynote was given by Paul Graham, at the YCombinator Ad Innovation Conference in Mountain View.  I attended along with @tdavidson and @barryl530 to see the early stage innovation that’s happening in the ad tech space.  We were certainly impressed not just with the innovation but with the amount of great agencies in attendance such as AKQA, Goodby, Sapient, Omnicom, Cadreon, VivaKi, and Jess3 amongst others.  We were in good company, to say the least.

Paul admitted he wasn’t an advertising guy, but knows technology enough to understand how tech will influence advertising in the next few years.  The data he used to back his claims were based on the thousands of applications YCombinator receives and is able to forecast and see trends in where innovation is happening.

Here is a summation of the 9 trends that’s pushing advertising, per Paul, but I tend to agree as well.

1. Tablets are important and might call for their own unique advertising platforms to take advantage of the user interface.  Apple and Android will dominate the market and Apple will dictate the ad formats.   Tablets are genuinely a big deal and we aint seen nothing yet.  My take:  Yes, he’s spot on.  Tablets penetrate and are both a content consumption device but increasingly, a content creation device, as long as we can innovate and create good input devices.

2.  All data lives in the cloud. All data about a consumer, transaction, records, etc will live in the cloud and ostensibly, be located in one database that can be used.  What will hold this back will not be technology, but will be government and policy.  My take:  Totally.  We’re seeing this today.  I’m all about data.

3.  More stuff happens peer 2 peer.  Paul used an analogy that I don’t know if I agree with, but he claims that hotels exist because consumers couldn’t find any other way of staying in a remote city or town, so hotels were built to meet this demand.  Now with services like airbnb, hotels could cease to exist as we know them.  My take:  I like what he’s trying to say, but don’t know if I buy the entire analogy.  Not everyone wants to stay in someone else’s home.

4.  There are going to be a lot more startups.   I liked where Paul went with this.  He basically said that engineers had 2 choices after college:  go to graduate school or join a big company.  Now, they have 3.  The third oppty is to create a startup.  Paul threw out the 1% number which was how many developers/engineers start companies… and if this increases 10%, then that’s 10x the amount of startups in the ecosystem.  Again, we aint seen nothing yet with the volume of startups out there… there are going to be many.

5.  Facebook is already a big deal.   Paul said that the $1.6bln from Facebook is quick and simple money and they haven’t really began monetizing yet.  They are focused on growth and even have a Facebook Growth Group, which is one of the most powerful groups in Facebook.  He thinks that when they start monetizing, they can seriously move into markets and kill competitors such as PayPal or Wepay.  My take:  I agree with Paul, but they have to be careful in how they approach this as to not alienate developers and users.  I don’t want Facebook to be 100% of the services I use as a consumer.

6.  Software eating the world.  Don’t be an advertising company that does software.  Be a software company that does ads.  Having this mentality is obviously valley-driven, but allows you to scale a business and think more product focused, which theoretically, should have better outcomes.

7. Target Ads Precisely.  Google could target their ads much more precise but they don’t have to yet, as the market isn’t necessarily requiring it or does it make economic sense for Google to do it until they must.  Paul said a great quote:  “Assume you can read someone’s mind, what ad would you give them.”  My take:  This is one of our investment thesis at kbs+p Ventures – application of data to drive advertising decisioning.

8.  More things will be done by numbers.  If an investor had to place a bet on quantitative measurement/analytics of creative, bets should be placed on measurement.  Numbers will/can/do drive decisioning and with ROI driven world, we need to quantify it.  My take:  Spot on, another investment thesis of kbs+p Ventures as well as what we apply at VMM and The Media Kitchen.  Couldn’t agree more.  I even treat my fantasy football teams this way.. and I want 2-1 this past weekend!

9.  Creative.  Creative will begin to become “generated.”  Paul essentially argued that the best creative in the “future” world will have to be generated because of all the varieties that are needed.  My take:  I think he’s onto something if we’re able to deliver the right creative to the right person at the right time.

I loved Paul’s opening.  This wasn’t 100% of everything, but was a lot of it.  My friend Roger of IA Venturesc also talks about similar trends on his blog, in a post titled, changing polarity in advertising, if you want to continue being inspired…

Enhanced by Zemanta